Annotated bibliography

  1. The power of social media –

    In this video Daryl D’Souza talks about the power of defining and communicating a brand through social media. Even although my artefacts purpose is not with business it still helped me understand how to use social media to communicate and engage with a wider audience and create relationships with readers. D’Souza emphasises the potential of using real-time communication to reach a wider audience and meet the expectations of an audience.

    His talk also brings to light the importance of keeping an identity that works for you, rather than changing to ‘become all things to all people.’


  1. Faces of UOW –

    ‘Faces of UOW’ was my initial inspiration on what I was going to be focusing my digital artefact on and helped me redevelop my initial idea. Reading over their interviews and blog helped me understand how I wanted my digital artefact ‘places of UOW’ to be set out. Although my artefact will not exactly be able to be set out the same way (i.e. interviews) and the page didn’t help me in creating stories it did give me a rough outline of what I want it to be like.


  1. Transmedia storytelling – Henry Jenkins

    Henry Jenkins offers an interesting insight into the effective distribution of content. The information and work in ‘transmedia storytelling 101’ is important to my digital artefact as I am considering using more than one platform in order to communicate my messages and reach my audience.

    Jenkins explains that Transmedia storytelling “… represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified entertainment experience.” His work is a good starting point for me to build the foundations of my digital artefact on and will help me using and selecting the appropriate channels that will most benefit my project and learning experience.


  1. Humans of New York –

    Like the Faces of UOW Facebook page, the Humans of New York blog is another example and baseline of the type of channel I wish to emulate. They both feature characters and interesting stories accompanied by photographs of their topic. Through reading their stories and researching how they set out their stories I have been able to get a better understanding of how I am to go about my artefact.

    Through using this website as a reference point for my digital artefact I will be able to stay on topic.


  1. Web writing 101 –

    This source provides a number of tips and information on creative writing and developing creative ideas. Although I am not looking to write a novel, I am looking to develop compelling and relatable stories in which my audience can engage with.

    Web readers have short attention spans so it is important to make my content more concise. Web readers are usually after specific information so the challenge is keeping them interested part the introduction. This site provides tips on how to write for an online audience by appropriately setting out paragraphs and ensuring the correct language and jargon is used.


  1. How to be funny –

    This article discusses the numerous ways to interact with an audience. It also provides tips on how to keep the audience interested through your writing by incorporating humour throughout your content. This will be extremely relevant to my digital artefact as when I publish posts I will be aiming to have a strong entertainment factor in place, as it will incorporate thoughts all students have had at one point or another but never truly dwelled on them. Using these tips will be able to make my thoughts more relatable to the audience. Using humour will also assist in grabbing the attention of the audience.


  1. 52 Tips: How to Market on Instagram –

     Although I am not marketing a product or business, in a way I will be marketing my digital artefact so using ideas and tips from this site I will be able to reach a wider audience. I found this article extremely interesting especially since I am a marketing and advertising major, and found it helpful in developing ideas in how to use Instagram to connect and engage with an audience.

    This site also discusses how to integrate multiple channels and the use of hashtags in order to gain a following.


  1. The medium is the message –

    At the beginning of the semester we learnt the concept of ‘the medium is the message,’ this has been important through our entire learning process and even more so in the implementation of our artefacts.

    As it is such an important concept I thought it would be best to brush up on my knowledge in order to truly understand the concept and keep it in mind as I create my posts. It will also have helped me in deciding the platforms I was going to use to communicate my message (Facebook and Instagram).


  1. Writing process –

     This source provides interesting and helpful tips in proceeding with the writing process. It discusses tips in how to stay organised, how to plan and how to become more engaged with your subject of interest. As my project will be written based it is important that I both improve my writing skills and stay on top of schedule.

    Although my artefact won’t need as much detail as is shown in the video it still provides a good guideline for me to follow in order to reduce stress and make the overall process much easier.


  1. UOW student life –

    This was a great source for images of UOW. There is a large range of different sights of UOW shown on their Instagram and although I cannot use these photos, it did present me with ideas of possible locations and objects to photograph for my artefact. The pictures themselves do not pose many details on the location or the story taking place outside from the initial photograph.

    When I post images, I will be describing what the significance of the image is to assist the readers in understanding what I have posted and why.




Transmedia Assemble

The most common form of media use to be ‘static media’ where the channel it was created in remains unchanged and disconnected from any other form.

Transmedia is described by Henry Jenkins as a storytelling process where integral elements of a fiction are dispersed systemically across multiple channels with the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes its own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story.” This form of media allows the story to transcend its original format. Marvel Publishing Inc. Is one of few publishing companies specialising in comics that has impacted on the world.




The Creation of Youtube


Most people would not consider Youtube as a craft, but there is an undeniable talent in those who excel in making it large amongst the Youtube community!

There is more to becoming a Youtuber than just creating a channel, picking your niche and rolling with it. Becoming a Youtuber (especially if your looking to make it your career) requires commitment, patience and work. Each of those who are the top most subscribed Youtuber’s in the world have this title for a reason. They have perfected their brand and their work and continue to make improvements throughout the years.

There are a number of different Youtube types including

  • beauty
  • lifestyle
  • tutorials
  • gamers
  • comedy
  • new

to name a few.

Although there are many people starting youtube channels everyday, it is difficult to make a noticeable global impact and while some may be excited to hit 200 subscribers when comparing it to other Youtuber’s such as PewDiePie (real name Felix Kjellberg) a 26 year old gamer who has 44,126,277 subscribers and is the highest paid youtuber ($12 million p.a) it is fair to say you have a long way to go and much to learn.



At the end of every year Youtube itself celebrates the creativity, popular fads and it’s most celebrated and subscribed Youtuber’s through a production called ‘Youtube Rewind’ put together by Youtube and it’s Youtuber’s. This bring bring a number of creative personalities to develop a video reliving the most memorable moments of Youtube history.


Global Watchdogs

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Citizen journalism is usually found online. The continuously evolving nature of the internet has allowed for the emergence of new communication channels – blogs, podcast videos and social media.

Almost everyone today is online and almost everyone has a smart phone on them at all times. This ease in which we access to technology and means of communication allows the ability to spread information at any given time, thus the creation of citizen journalism.

Put simply, citizen journalism is when private individuals do essentially what professional reporters do – report information. The phenomenon has allowed the audience to become the producer, giving the public control over media and information. citizen journalism poses many pros and cons including:


  • They themselves are not influenced by anyone
  • Helps cover news that may have been missed
  • Creates a more participatory environment, whereby the audience can become more involved in the issues.
  • Helps get people engaged and interested in current issues, this in turn influences activism
  • Allows people to share different opinions or angles of a story, providing us more coverage


  • They have no professional training or experience in the field; this can impact on the quality of information gathered.
  • Citizen journalists may lack professional legitimacy paid journalists have
  • could create panic through sharing false info
  • publishers of the information could be bias and have their own agenda

All in all journalism of this kind should not pose a threat if done properly without bias. It also allows the public to keep a watchful eye on organisations, journalists and entities that may go against what may be considered wrong in the public eye. Having watchdogs or gatekeepers means that others are under more pressure to ensure their information is correct, unbiased and released quickly.

humanising animals = dehumanising humans?

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One of the biggest trends in todays society is ‘veganism’. With the rising concerns and awareness in regards to the treatment of animals, consumerism and wellbeing, going vegetarian and vegan has become an increasingly popular concept.  Along with this there is now seemingly contagious need to know where and how we get our food especially meat.

Organisations often find it difficult in encouraging a change in lifestyle, while few can go through with hunting and butchering their own meat, they often distance themselves from the reality of slaughter houses and the fact that it IS being done by someone.

The People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is one of the largest animal rights organisations in the world, and is known for their work in educating the public on animal cruelty.

Their website provides countless articles and information regarding issues such as animal testing, animals used for clothing and of course animal slaughter. Although PETA does aim to educate people on these issues they at times use other means to attract attention in hope of bringing about change.

Although going outside the box when marketing is often encouraged, a company like PETA that is pro animal rights and fair treatment often forgets to apply the same demands to people, more specifically women. Surprisingly PETA has a long history of selling their beliefs through the hyper-sexualization of women.

The organization has constantly used women as a selling point of their ideals. In a time where people, especially women are so obsessed with the way they look and achieving ‘perfection’ while striving for equality, we must ask ‘is PETA taking two steps back?’

As PETA’s aim in using people in their ads is to give animals human characteristics to the fullest extent by placing ourselves in their position, it often loses focus by the sheer shock the ads themselves provide.

“Using a woman’s body to show that animals are made of flesh and blood and bones, just like you, is a very serious point that we are trying to put out, so that people can think of animals as sentient human beings, not just pieces of meat on supermarket shelves. The results we are getting for the animals is part of our main aim, which is to alleviate their suffering.”

Though humanising animals has been done countless times especially in media, PETA seems unable to do so without the sacrifice of others, and in the process dehumanise women, reverting them back to being objects or ‘a piece of meat’.

Their campaigns have shown women in various negative dispositions, depicting them as objects of sex and unrealistic ideals. Even going as far as to show them as objects of abuse, willing abuse non-the-less. The “Boyfriend Went Vegan and Knocked the Bottom Out of Me.” campaign showed a young women stripped of most of her clothes, in a neck brace her face contorted in an image image of pain, performing domestic chores for her boyfriend. This is all due to her boyfriend going vegan and as a result having heightened stamina.

The women in the ad received none of the benefits from the health impacts implied as the campaign itself is directed at men, funnily enough most of these ads seem to be directed at men and even boast that they are a “great health message…

Unfortunately the style of these ads does nothing but suggest that the only way for them to get attention is through the exploitation of women. For a company who preaches the wellbeing of animals so much its almost as if they don’t truly believe in what that seek to accomplish. Personally these ads do little to convince me to make any for of lifestyle change if anything they deter me from doing so. This in return leads to wonder if what they are doing is actually alienating those whom they wish to convert do to their actions and choice in promotion.

Suffering and Ignorance

The job of the media is to keep us informed and educated about what is happening in the world around us. Larger scale tabloids, news enterprises and magazines tend to at times over exaggerate, promote and exploit the suffering of others for personal gain in the form of views. This in return makes it difficult for us as viewers to distinguish whether an image has been edited, cropped or skewed in anyway that may suggest there is more to the story that what we are presented.

Suffering has become a normality today through the constant reminders on social media and television as they have been immortalized through photographs. Poverty porn for one is constantly seen everywhere.

vulture-child.jpgPhoto by Kevin Carter during the ’94 Somalia famine

In ‘How to write about Africa‘ Binyavanga Wainaina not so subtly writes a satire piece on the art of writing about poverty, that surprisingly fits every journal article on the topic I have ever read.

you must always include The Starving African, who wanders the refugee camp nearly naked, and waits for the benevolence of the West. Her children have flies on their eyelids and pot bellies, and her breasts are flat and empty. She must look utterly helpless. She can have no past, no history; such diversions ruin the dramatic moment. Moans are good. She must never say anything about herself in the dialogue except to speak of her (unspeakable) suffering. 

Although showing suffering so that we are aware of external issues in the world is extremely important, most articles do little in explaining the situation in full. Poverty is a result of individual and systemic problems. Roenigk suggests that poverty involves personal circumstances along with social, economic and issues in their justice systems (2014). Unfortunately, poverty porn defines the suffering as lacking material resources and while donations may help they do nothing in targeting the main cause.

Marketing and communication teams for charities and NGOs are constantly using images of poverty porn accompanied by small snippets of background stories, containing hardship and suffering (often of a small child). This is done order to promote the cause and raise awareness of issues such as famine. Although the reason may be just, we must ask ourselves is exploiting another’s suffering really the right way to go about it?

Charities often experiments with different elements and ways to paint an image, in a way the evokes a strong emotional response from its audience. In order to enhance the importance of their campaign, celebrity endorsements are event used. Using emotive tactics such as these arouses empathy in viewers and gains pity from the audience, increasing their acceptance and willingness to donate as they otherwise feel guilty for not acting. Matheson miller stated “A lot of times in our charity, we have tended to treat poor people like objects — objects of our charity, objects of our pity, objects of our compassion,” ( Horan, 2016) and this unfortunately, is not too far from the truth.


One example of showing suffering that provoked activism and changes was during the height of the refugee crisis.

On September 2015 Aylan Kurdi, a 3 year old boy was found washed up on the shores of Turkey. Faced down, limp, and unmoving, a result of a life threatening journey he and his family took to find refuge from the Syrian war. The images of this boy spread like wild fire across all platforms including social media. That day all newspapers spread his story some showing his face while others refused to, wether this was for the safety of the viewers or for respect to the boy and his family. This in itself greatly affects the impact the image will have on its audience.

Personally, I remember seeing this image of the small boy, his face still partially visible. A victim to the decisions of the government to close their gates to the asylum seekers, and I was filled with dread. A disturbing and uncomfortable feeling washed over me, and yet I was unable to look away, because in doing so would only fill me with more guilt and anger. Guilt because it would be as if I was denying the reality and severity of their situation and anger that anyone be so heartless as to refuse them safety. As hard as it was to see these images and read these stories it was an important turn of events. His story, brought understanding and created a shift in the way people were talking about the crisis, triggering change.

No matter the culture a dead child is seen as tragic and preventable and often results in us creating connection to the situation through children we know. Unfortunately medias main priority is often the wellbeing of viewers. Channel Ten for example refused to publish the image to protect us from it, but how much protection does ignorance buy us?

In the end  we must decide, do we ignore the suffering of others in order to protect ourselves and remain ignorant to the world we live in? Or do we stay informed facing the issues head on, in hope or creating change?



Horan, A 2016, Against Poverty Porn: Why Our Approach To Foreign Aid Is Outdated, Paternalistic And Misguided, Junkee, 23rd March 2016, accessed 24th March 2016, <>

Roenigk, E 2014, 5 Reasons ‘Poverty Porn’ Empowers The Wrong Person, HUFFPOST IMPACT, weblog, 16 april, viewed 23 march 2016, <>

Sontag, S 2003, Regarding the Pain of Others, Chapter 3, Hamish Hamilton, London, England, pp. 36-52

Apple v Samsung

Concerning this week’s topic of ‘I love gadgets’ I decided that I would do something a little different in comparison to other podcasts, in order to explore what I could with technology and the creativity it would allow me to exploit.

I have decided that I would do a short cover of the song ‘anything you can do’ sung by Betty Hutton and Howard Keel. The cover feature lyrics written by me and are compiled in a way that would feature apple and Samsung arguing over who is best in computerised voices! enjoy 🙂

There’s no doubt that Apple phones are one of the biggest sellers in the world, although this does not diminish the ongoing battle between Apple and Android users.

The battle goes far deeper than simple aesthetics, one of the main differences to be pointed out first is the smart phones interface. While the iPhone runs on the iOS and has a simplistic fixed layout that allows users to interact with ease, Samsung allows total customisation that cannot be achieved with the iPhone unless one jailbreaks it. To some this customisation is an important aspect as it allows them to personalize their phones layout to their liking, to others it over complicates the system and represents a cluttered distraction.

Regardless of the constant argument over which phone is ‘better’ at the end of it all they both do the same thing. They both make calls, send messages, takes photos and anything else one would look for in a smart phone. It all comes down to personal preferences, an aspect this ongoing battle seems to ignore time and time again as we are blinded by our loyalty to the brand. I for one as an iPhone, during this week have found multiple faults in the Apple product, possible as many as I find in android products. This left me with the question, ‘does it really matter which is best?’

Zeman, E 2015, InformationWeek iPhone vs. Android, 23rd July, viewed 23rd march 2016